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Most of the mutineers were previously members of the pro-Tutsi Congrès national pour la défense du peuple (CNDP).In 2009 CNDP signed a deal with the government which the mutineers felt Kinshasa did not fully implement.1) Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda/Rassemblement Uni pour la Démocratie (FDLR/RUD)The group, led by Brig-Gen Jean Damascène Ntibabagije (“Musare”), comprises 400-600 mostly ethnic Hutus.

URDC obtains weapons and ammunition from FARDC (by purchasing or attacking and looting army positions); from M23; and from smugglers from Uganda, says the Go E report.

It is active in western Rutshuru Territory, and has been accused of human rights violations and the illicit exploitation of natural resources. Maï Maï Hilaire (Union pour la Réhabilitation de la Démocratie du Congo - URDC) An M23 ally, URDC is led by “Brigadier General” Paluku Kombi Hilaire, a FARDC defector. It comprises about 300 men, mostly from the Nande ethnic community.

URDC’s other alliances are with Uganda’s Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) and Maï Maï Morgan (see below), according to the Enough Project.

The group operates around South Lubero Territory with extended positions in northeastern Rutshuru Territory and is involved in the mineral, timber and coal trade, and also engages in illegal taxation and poaching.

2) FDLR/SOKI The FDLR/SOKI group, whose leader “Colonel” Soki was killed by M23 in July, has 60-100 mostly Hutu men.

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